The most important terms related to Forex trading are presented in this glossary:

Forex Trading Terms
Accounting Method of recording and outlining the financial dealings, income/earnings, and operations of an entity.
Acquisition Purchase of majority or all of the target’s firm controlling stakes by an acquiring entity. Not to be confused with merger.
Affiliate 1. A relation where one of the companies own less than a majority of the other firm’s stock.
2. An inter-company connection in which at least two different entities are subsidiaries of a bigger company.
Agent 1. Individual authorized to sell an insurance in a state.
2. Person or company facilitating securities transactions for clients.
3. Securities salesperson representing an issuer or broker-dealer when selling derivatives to the public.
Algorithmic Trading Trading system where a computer has advanced mathematical structures to make and facilitate transactions in the market.
Amortization 1. Repaying a debt obligation on a regular basis over a certain time period.
2. Distributing the capital cost of an intangible asset over a specific time period.
Analyst Financial professional knowledgeable in assessing investments and making recommendations for securities.
Annuity Financial product designed to grow funds, which will give an income stream to the holder in the future upon amortization.
Appreciation Increment in a security’s value over time.
Arbitrage Act of purchasing and selling a financial instrument simultaneously in order to generate profit from its price differences.
Ask (Offer) Price of the offer, the price you buy for.
Asset 1. A section in the balance sheet outlining the items owned by a company.
2. An economic resource owned by a person, entity, or country, hoping to gain economic benefits in the future.
Asset Class A group of securities with the same behavior in the market, characteristics, and adherence to laws and regulations.
Audit Internal or external assessment of the financial statement of a firm or organization by looking into their records.
Australian Dollar Australia’s official currency and the legal tender of Kiribati, Nauru, and Tuvalu. The currency, presented with the symbol A$, is comprised of 100 cents.
Average Annual Yield Aggregate yield of an investment or portfolio within a year. It is computed by adding all the interest accrued, dividends, or other income earned from the investment, and obtaining the median of all investments for that year.
Bank An entity, normally a financial institution or company, which accepts and facilitates deposits from clients.
Bank of Canada Canada’s central bank and banknote issuing authority established in 1935. Its duties include managing the country’s financial system and monetary policy to ensure economic stability.
Bank of England United Kingdom's central bank, it acts as the government's bank and the lender's last resort. It issues currency and oversees monetary policy.
Bank of Japan Japan's central bank is responsible for issuing and handling currency and treasury security, implementing monetary policy, maintaining the stability of the Japanese financial system.
Bank Rate The percentage rate at which central bank of a country lends money to the country's commercial banks.
Bank Stress Test An evaluation administered internally by banks or supervisory authorities to gauge whether a bank has sufficient capital to withstand the effect of adverse developments.
Bankruptcy A legal procedure where a federal court liquidates a borrower’s assets to settle debts, relieving the individual or entity of additional liability.
Bear An investor stipulating a financial instrument or the overall market will plunge.
Bid Price of the demand, the price you sell for.
Bitcoin Alternative currency trailing the idea outlined in a white paper by Satoshi Nakamoto. Introduced in 2009, it offers lower transaction fees and is managed by a decentralized authority.
Bond A debt instrument released by a firm or government, which seeks to generate capital to fund their activities or projects by borrowing. In exchange of capital, the entity needs to repay the principal plus interest within a specified time period (maturity).
British Pound The United Kingdom’s official currency. Also called pound, the currency is presented with the symbol £ and is comprised of 100 pence.
Broker The market participating body which serves as the middleman between retail traders and larger commercial institutions.
Brokerage Fee A fee levied by an agent or company in exchange for facilitating a client’s financial transaction.
Bull An investor stipulating a financial instrument or the overall market will surge.
Canadian Dollar Canada’s official currency first used in 1858. Presented with the symbol C$, the currency is comprised of 100 cents.
Carry Trade In Forex, holding a position with a positive overnight interest return in hope of gaining profits, without closing the position, just for the central banks interest rates difference.
Central Bank A national bank mandated by the government to ensure low inflation, currency stability, and full employment. Some of its responsibilities include implementing monetary policy, serving as a lender of last resort, and monitoring the financial system.
Certified Public Accountant Designation to professionals who passed the examination, as well as completed education and work requirements set forth by the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants.
CFD A Contract for Difference - special trading instrument that allows financial speculation on stocks, commodities and other instruments without actually buying.
Checks and Balances Act of implementing several measures aimed at curbing discrepancies or improper behavior within an entity.
Chicago Board Options Exchange An exchange focusing on options contracts for indices, interest rates, and stocks. Founded in 1973, CBOE is the biggest options market worldwide.
Chicago Mercantile Exchange The exchange for futures and options on futures, which mostly entails futures on currency, equities, interest rates, stock indexes, and a small portion on agricultural products.
Clearing Broker An exchange member acting as a mediator between a trader and a clearing corporation. This broker ensures a transaction is processed between the parties involved.
Clearing Fee Fee levied by a clearing house for processing unsettled dealings.
Client Base Primary business source of an entity made up of their current customers who avail their products and services, as well as prospective clients which have a high possibility of becoming customers.
Commission Broker commissions for operation handling.
Commodity 1. In commerce, any good swapped on a commodity exchange.
2. A basic good which can be exchanged with other commodities of the same type.
Compounding An asset’s capability to bolster its value by reinvesting the earnings from previous dealings.
CPI Consumer price index the statistical measure of inflation based upon changes of prices of a specified set of goods.
Currency Money issued by a government that is circulated within an economy.
Currency Pair In foreign exchange, the quotation and pricing structure of the currencies being traded in the market.
Currency Swap Swap encompassing the exchange of principal and interest in a currency for another.
Debt Amount of money borrowed by an individual or company.
Default 1. Failure to fulfill terms of a futures contract, as per exchange.
2. Borrower’s failure or unwillingness to pay interest or principal on time.
Devaluation Intended decrement to the value of a currency, a group of currencies or standard.
Diversification Risk management technique which combines different investments within a portfolio in order to neutralize losses and maximize gains.
Dividend Disbursement of a firm’s earnings to a class of its investors.
Dow Jones Industrial Average An index trailing 30 stocks on the Nasdaq and the New York Stock Exchange.
Downtick Dealing in an exchange which takes place when the price is lower than the past transaction.
EA (Expert Advisor) An automated script which is used by the trading platform software to manage positions and orders automatically without (or with little) manual control.
Earnings Amount of profit generated by a company during a given time period.
ECB (European Central Bank) The main regulatory body of the European Union financial system.
ECN Broker In foreign exchange, a financial professional who utilizes electronic communications networks for clients to facilitate trades with other clients directly.
Economic Conditions Economic state of a region or country influenced by various factors such as exchange rates, overall condition of the global economy, inflation, monetary and fiscal policy, and unemployment levels.
Economic Cycle Natural flow of the economy between periods of growth and recession.
Economic Growth Expansion in the economy’s capability to manufacture products and services, compared from one period to another.
Economy Consumption and production activities which gives a picture of a country’s resource.
Emergency Fund Account used to allocate a particular amount of money for emergency cases, such as a job loss, aimed at improving financial security of an individual.
Equity Asset’s value minus all its liabilities.
Euro The eurozone’s official currency unveiled in 2002. Used by majority of EU member countries, the currency is presented with the symbol €.
European Union Organization encompassing European countries, which operates as one and under one official currency, the euro. European Union is responsible for ensuring a barrier-free trade zone and improving economic wealth.
Eurozone Also known as euroland, it is a group comprising all European Union member countries in which they recognize and use the euro as their official currency.
Exchange Rate The value for which a country’s currency can be swapped for another nation’s currency. An exchange rate, which can be quoted directly or indirectly, are influenced by numerous factors including the overall economy, events, and inflation.
Exchanged-Traded Fund A security tracing the overall performance of an index, a commodity, bonds, or an index fund. ETFs, having lower fees and higher liquidity, experience price change since the funds are bought and sold during the day.
Export Sending of goods produced in a country to another nation for exchange, sale or trade. Exports, considered one of the oldest types of economic transfer, take place among countries with minimal trade restrictions or charges.
Face Value The worth of a derivative or instrument as declared by the issuer. Also referred to as nominal value, par value, or par.
Fed (Federal Reserve) The main regulatory body of the United States of America financial system, which division - FOMC (Federal Open Market Committee) - regulates, among other things, federal interest rates.
Finance A study encompassing the management and usage of money by people, organizations, and countries. Some opt to divide finance into three classifications: personal finance, corporate finance, and public finance.
Financial Advisor A professional which provides guidance or recommendation to a client in exchange for compensation or fee.
Flat (Square) Neutral state when all your positions are closed.
Floating Leverage A leverage that changes depending on the total size of open positions.
Foreign Exchange Act of purchasing and selling foreign currencies or converting a country’s currency for another. Currency trading occurs in a decentralized global market 24 hours a day and five days a week. Also called forex.
Free Lunch A product or service is offered at no cost, in which some parties (and even the recipient) shoulder the real cost of that offering. The concept primarily seeks to gain new customers and increase revenues. In investment, it describes instances where investor cannot make huge profits without the risk of a likely loss.
Fundamental Analysis The analysis based only on news, economic indicators and global events.
Futures Transferable financial contract that includes an obligation to buy. It stipulates the details of purchasing (or selling) an asset such as the predetermined price and date in the future. It can be used to speculate or hedge on the underlying asset’s price movement.
Gap A difference between the previous period's close price and the next period's open price. In Forex usually only occurs during weekends - between the Friday's close and the Monday's open price.
GDP (Gross Domestic Product) Is a measure of the national income and output for the country's economy; it's one of the most important Forex indicators.
Gold Yellow metal being used to steady the worth of the US dollar and some of the world’s major currencies. Gold is considered the oldest medium of exchange and form of currency.
GTC (Good Til Canceled) Order to buy or sell of a currency with a fixed price or worse. The order is alive (good) until execution or cancellation.
Guerrilla Trading Short-term trading strategy seeking to generate small, quick profits gains while minimizing risks. This type of trading technique normally lasts for a few minutes.
Guidance A document outlining a company’s projection of its earnings in the future. Also known as expected results, a corporation releases their guidance to shareholders and market watchers.
Hedging Maintaining a market position which secures the existing open positions in the opposite direction.
Import Product or service transported from one country to another country for sale.
Index Indicator gauging the change in an economy or securities market. Frequently used as a benchmark or measurement for a particular industry or market, every index has differing computing methods that is normally expressed as a change from a base value.
Industry Categorization of businesses or entities based on their primary activities. If a corporation engages in different business activities, that company belongs to an industry where most of its revenues are earned.
Inflation Consistent price increase of all products and services in an economy, normally gauged using the Consumer Price Index.
Initial Public Offering First stock sale by a private firm to the general public. IPOs are normally done by smaller and newer companies to generate capital for expansion.
Insider Trading Purchasing and selling of stocks by an individual who trades based on the nonpublic information from the insider.
Insurance Contract indicating a policyholder (person or business) receives financial compensation against losses from an insurance firm.
Intangible Asset Nonphysical asset categorized as definite or indefinite based on its specifications. Some examples of intangible asset include brand recognition, corporate intellectual property, and goodwill.
Interest Rate Fee paid by a borrower to a creditor for using the institution’s assets. It is expressed as annual percentage of principal.
Internal Revenue Service US government agency tasked to collect and implement tax laws. Formed in 1862, the IRS manages income and employment taxes, as well as other types of taxes.
International Monetary Fund Global organization responsible for formalizing exchange rates and financial relations worldwide. Seeking to strengthen their member nations as well, the IMF ensures monetary and exchange stability by monitoring the global economy.
Investing Putting capital or money, as well as exerting time and effort, into a venture to earn an additional income or profit.
Investment An asset obtained for future income or value increment. In economics, investment is the purchase of products not consumed but can be used to generate wealth. In finance, it refers to the monetary asset hoping to gain income or greater value and be sold at a higher rate.
Japanese Yen Japan’s official currency introduced by the Meiji government in 1872. The currency, presented with the symbol ¥, is comprised of 100 sen or 1000 rin.
Key Ratio Metric depicting and encapsulating a company’s current financial situation in general.
Law of Supply and Demand Theory outlining the relationship between the supply of a good and the desire for the said good. In essence, the law of supply and demand shows how the availability and demand for a product affects its selling price.
Leading Indicators A composite index (year 1992 = 100%) of ten most important macroeconomic indicators that predicts future (6-9 months) economic activity.
Leverage 1. Amount of debt used in funding a company’s assets.
2. Usage of borrowed capital or financial instruments to bolster an investment’s potential return.
LIBOR ICE LIBOR or LIBOR, acronym for Intercontinental Exchange London Interbank Offered Rate, is an interest rate utilized by world’s top banks for charging short-term loans. Regulated by the ICE Benchmark Administration, LIBOR refers to the following currencies for computation: the Japanese yen, the Swiss franc, the British pound, the euro, and the US dollar.
Limit Order Order for a broker to buy the lot for fixed or lesser price or sell the lot for fixed or better price. Such price is called limit price.
Liquidity An asset’s capability to be easily purchased or sold without reducing its initial value.
Loan An act in which an institution lends asset (money, property, etc.) to another party in return for future repayment plus interest rates and other fees.
Long The position which is in a Buy direction. In Forex, the primary currency when bought is long and another is short.
Loss The loss from closing long position at lower rate than opening or short position with higher rate than opening, or if the profit from a position closing was lower than broker commission on it.
Lot Definite amount of units or amount of money accepted for operations handling (usually it is a multiple of 100).
Management Risk Perils caused by underperforming, inefficient, or faulty management, affecting the company (or fund) being administered and its shareholders.
Margin Money, the investor needs to keep at broker account to execute trades. It supplies the possible losses which may occur in margin trading.
Margin Account Account which is used to hold investor's deposited money for FOREX trading.
Margin Call Demand of a broker to deposit more margin money to the margin account when the amount in it falls below certain minimum.
Market Capitalization Total value of all of the corporation’s outstanding shares. Also called market cap, it is determined by multiplying the aggregate number of stocks outstanding by the current stock price per share.
Market Order Order to buy or sell a lot for a current market price.
Market Price The current price for which the currency is traded for on the market.
Maturity A specific time period in which a financial instrument will end its existence and the principal is paid with interest.
Merger The combining of at least two entities to become one where the acquiring company purchases the stocks of shareholders and the resources of companies are collated for the new firm.
Mergers and Acquisitions Unification of at least two entities.
Momentum The measure of the currency's ability to move in the given direction.
Monetary Base Sum of a country’s currency either stored in commercial bank deposits in the central bank’s vaults or circulated publicly.
Mortgage A debt instrument in which the borrower receives cash upright and makes future repayments within a specific time period. Obtained by the collateral of a particular real estate property, individuals and companies use mortgages to purchase huge real estate properties without paying the entire value of that property right away.
Mutual Fund A financial instrument which collects money of shareholders and invests in a pool of securities such as bonds and stocks. Supervised by money managers, mutual fund seeks to generate capital gains and provide income for their holders.
Nasdaq Computerized marketplace which provides an avenue for traders to purchase and sell securities. Established by the National Association of Securities Dealers, Nasdaq also serves as the benchmark index for US technology shares.
Net Worth Total worth of a company which is computed by deducting its total assets by total liabilities. Also called book value or shareholders’ equity.
New York Stock Exchange Largest stock exchange worldwide, referring to the NYSE’s total market capitalization of all listed securities. The exchange, also referred to as Big Board, is situated in New York City.
New Zealand Dollar Official currency of New Zealand presented with the symbol NZ$. Also called kiwi, the currency is comprised of 100 cents.
Offer (Ask) Price of the offer, the price you buy for.
Offset 1. Cutting an investor’s net position to zero for an investment to no longer accrue gains or losses.
2. Liquidating a futures position by making an opposite dealing in order to remove the delivery obligation.
Open Position (Trade) Position on buying (long) or selling (short) for a currency pair.
Option Contract giving in which a seller renders the right, not the obligation, to purchase (call) or sell (put) a particular security at a predetermined price within a specific time period.
Order Order for a broker to buy or sell the currency with a certain rate.
Over the Counter Decentralized market in which securities are dealt via a dealer network. Derivatives being traded in this market are not included on an exchange’s listing.
Par Face or nominal value of an investment instrument including bonds, currencies, and stocks. Also called par value, the world is mostly applicable in bonds.
Partnership Collaboration in which two or more persons or entities share responsibilities, profits, and liabilities of a business venture. Not every partner is involved in daily operations and management of the venture. In some instances, partnerships obtain beneficial tax treatment.
Payout Payment or return from an investment within a certain time period, expressed as the actual amount or a percentage on a regular or annual basis.
Percentage Allocation Management Module (PAMM) A broker-side system that allows investor to invest with traders, and allows traders to manage investors funds using the broker's platform.
Pivot Point The primary support/resistance point calculated basing on the previous trend's High, Low and Close prices.
Pip (Point) The last digit in the rate (e.g. for EUR/USD 1 point = 0.0001).
Position The amount of a security held or borrowed by an entity (trader or dealer). In simplest terms, it is the current open trade of an investor.
Premium 1. Periodic payment being paid by a policyholder for an insurance company to provide compensation within a certain time period.
2. Aggregate cost of an option.
3. The difference between the derivative’s selling price and face value.
Price-to-Earnings Ratio Metric appraising a company. It is determined by dividing the company stock’s market value per share by earnings per share. Also known as earnings multiple.
Profit (Gain) Positive amount of money gained for closing the position.
Producer Price Index Economic indicator gauging the median change in the overall price levels from the seller’s point of view.
Principal Value The initial amount of money of the invested.
Proprietary Trading Dealings made by a financial institution to profit from the market using its own account, not their clients.
Prospectus Legal document outlining the information about an investment that is sold to the general public. Also called offer document, prospectus helps an investor make a sound investment decision.
Purchasing Managers’ Index Economic indicator measuring the overall condition of the manufacturing sector according to the following factors: production, employment environment, new orders, supplier deliveries, and inventory levels. A reading lower than 50 denotes contraction while higher than 50 indicates expansion.
Realized Profit/Loss Gain/loss for already closed positions.
Reserve Bank of Australia Australia’s central bank and banknote issuing authority established in 1960. Its responsibilities include the country’s economic progression and full employment rate, as well as securing the Australian dollar’s steadiness by implementing the necessary monetary policies.
Reserve Bank of New Zealand New Zealand’s central bank and banknote issuing authority formed in 1934. Its duties include ensuring the stability of the country’s financial system, keeping the country’s monetary policy, supporting services of other banks, and meeting the currency needs of its people.
Resistance Price level for which the intensive selling can lead to price increasing (up-trend).
Risk The chance an investment may wipe out some or all of its worth. It also refers to a lower than anticipated returns.
Rollover 1. Movement of a retirement plan’s holdings to another without incurring tax.
2. Shift of a forex position to another delivery, resulting in additional charge.
3. Reinvestment of funds from one derivative into a new issue of a similar instrument.
S&P 500 The top index provider worldwide which gives independent credit scores as well. For over 150 years, the company has been rendering financial market intelligence to market players.
Scalping A style of trading notable by many positions that are opened for extremely small and short-term profits.
Securities and Exchange Commission Federal agency primarily tasked to safeguard investors and uphold their interests. Founded in 1934, its duties include bolstering capital formation, managing the securities markets, and overseeing the takeovers in the United States.
Settled (Closed) Position Closed positions for which all needed transactions has been made.
Shanghai Stock Exchange A non profit organization run by the China Securities Regulatory Commission. Established in 1990, the exchange is responsible for forming business regulations, accepting and organizing listing, providing an avenue, processing, and monitoring securities trading, and overseeing and disseminating market details.
Silver A commodity generally used in coins, electronic devices, jewelry, and photography. Because of having the highest electrical conductivity, silver is considered a highly significant element.
Slippage Execution of order for a price different than expected (ordered), main reasons for slippage are - "fast" market, low liquidity and low broker's ability to execute orders.
Spread Difference between ask and bid prices for a currency pair.
Standard Lot 100,000 units of the base currency of the currency pair, which you are buying or selling.
Stock Security exhibiting ownership of an individual or group in a firm. The stock also signifies shareholders’ right on the portion of a company’s assets and revenues. Common stock and preferred stock are the two main classifications of stock.
Stop-Limit Order An order to sell or buy a lot for a certain price or worse.
Stop-Loss Order (SL) An order to sell or buy a lot when the market reaches certain price. It is used to avoid extra losses when market moves in the opposite direction. Usually is a combination of stop-order and limit-order.
STP (Straight Through Processing) An order processing that doesn't require any manual intervention and is fully automatic. In fact, 99.9% of all on-line Forex brokers support order handling with STP.
Support Difference between ask and bid prices for a currency pair.
Swap Overnight payment for holding your position. Since you are not physically receiving the currency you buy, your broker should pay you the interest rate difference between the two currencies of the pair. It can be negative or positive.
Swiss Franc Official currency of Switzerland, and the legal tender of Campione d'Italia and Liechtenstein. The safe-haven currency is comprised of 100 centimes.
Swiss National Bank Switzerland’s central bank and banknote issuing authority established in 1907. Its responsibilities include ensuring cash supply and price stability in the country and bolstering the liquidity of the money market when necessary.
Takeover Act of acquiring a company by making a bid for a target corporation, either by employing a friendly or hostile approach.
Take-Profit Order (TP) An order to sell or buy a lot when the market reaches certain price. It is used to fixate your profit. Usually is a combination of stop-order and limit-order.
Tangible Asset An asset with a physical form. Some examples of tangible asset include accounts receivable, machinery, and real estate property.
Tax Identification Number A nine-digit identifying number designated by a country’s tax collection agency to an individual or entity for tax purposes.
Taxation An involuntary charge imposed by a country’s tax collection agency to an individual or corporation in order to finance their activities or projects.
Technical Analysis The analysis based only on the technical market data (quotes) with the help of various technical indicators.
Technical Indicator A metric projecting the future price levels or the overall price direction of a derivative by studying its previous patterns.
Tick Slightest price change or minimal movement in a derivative’s price.
Tokyo Stock Exchange Japan’s biggest stock exchange and the world’s fourth largest exchange (in terms of total market capitalization). Founded in 1878, the TSE has over 2,200 listed firms, including Honda and Toyota.
Toronto Stock Exchange Canada’s largest stock exchange formed in 1852. Controlled and regulated by TMX Group, the TSX (formerly TSE) has listed more than 1,515 companies.
Trade 1. In economics, a fundamental concept in which several parties exchange goods and/or services to one another in a negotiation.
2. In finance, facilitating a transaction to purchase and sell a security.
Trader A person working on purchasing and selling a derivate or security in a market either for his own use or the financial institution’s utilization.
Trading Software Computer program or software enabling a person to trade financial instruments including currencies and stocks, as well as manage their trading accounts. It is normally provided by brokerage or investment firm.
Trading Strategy A preset of rules and parameter outlining the requirements which should be fulfilled to enter and exit trades. It includes the following: order types, trade entries, filters and triggers, money management, and timetables.
Trend Direction of market which has been established with influence of different factors.
Uncle Sam Monicker referring to the United States or the US government. Based on mythos, the word is related to a certain Samuel Wilson, a meat distributor who gave barrels of beef to the US military throughout the War of 1812.
Unemployment Rate An indicator gauging the aggregate workforce in the labor market. Expressed in percentage, it determines the total number of people who are jobless but seeking to gain a paid job.
United Nations An intergovernmental organization responsible for ensuring peace and security around the globe, attain global cooperation in resolving international disputes, developing harmonious relations among member countries, and synchronizing the acts of countries to achieve the common ends. Established in 1945, the United Nations has 193 member nations and 2 observer countries.
Unrealized (Floating) Profit/Loss Price level for which intensive buying can lead to the price decreasing (down-trend).
Uptick Market dealing in which the price of an investment instrument or security increases relative to its last trade.
US Dollar The United States’ official currency presented with the symbol $. Initially incepted though the Coinage Act of 1792, the currency is comprised of 100 cents.
US Treasury Federal agency responsible for releasing all Treasury notes, bonds, and bills, as well as bolstering the economy and creating economic and job opportunities. Introduced in 1798, the Treasury Department oversees the following government agencies: the Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau, the Bureau of the Public Debt, the Internal Revenue Service, and the United States Mint.
Useable Margin Amount of money in the account that can be used for trading.
Used Margin Amount of money in the account already used to hold open positions open.
Volatility A statistical measure of the number of price changes for a given currency pair in a given period of time.
Volume The aggregate number of dealings occurring in a derivative or exchange within a particular time period.
VPS (Virtual Private Server) Virtual environment hosted on the dedicated server, which can be used to run the programs independent on the user's PC. Forex traders use VPS to host trading platforms and run expert advisors without unexpected interruptions.
Wall Street 1. A Manhattan street where the New York Stock Exchange, as well as most of the biggest brokerages and investment banks in the United States are located.
World Bank A global organization, founded in 1944, which is responsible for conducting research, giving an advice, and funding developing countries to help boost their economic progression.
Yield Cash return of a derivative or security to its holder or owner, which expressed as a percentage.